Understanding Arthritis: Causes, Symptoms, and Effective Treatments for Osteoarthritis

Arthritis is a common condition causing aches and pains, but what exactly is it? Many believe it involves the growth of unwanted structures within a joint, but the truth lies in the gradual wearing away of the joint's protective coating known as cartilage.

Arthritis affects people of all ages, but it becomes increasingly prevalent as we age. Understanding its causes, symptoms, treatment options, and preventive measures is crucial for managing the condition effectively and maintaining joint health.

Many people are all too familiar with the aches and pains of arthritis, but what exactly is arthritis? One common misconception is that arthritis is the result of something that grows in or on a joint over time. If that were the case, curing arthritis would be as simple as removing the unwanted “growth”.  Unfortunately arthritis is not caused by anything growing on the joint, but rather a wearing away of the joint’s protective coating known as cartilage.


Understanding Osteoarthritis (OA): 

Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent form of arthritis, characterized by inflammation of a joint. It occurs when the special cartilage, called articular cartilage, covering the ends of bones in a joint, starts to degenerate.

OA is typically found in weight-bearing joints like the knee, hip, spine, feet, and hand. Various risk factors contribute to its development, including age, gender, genetics, obesity, joint injuries, mechanical stress, and structural malalignment.


The Role of Articular Cartilage: 

Articular cartilage is a highly specialized connective tissue providing a smooth, lubricated surface for joint articulation and load transmission with minimal friction. Unlike other tissues, it lacks blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics, allowing for painless motion even with substantial impact. However, its limited capacity for healing means that as it wears away due to age, injury, or other causes, symptoms like pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of motion may arise.


Recognizing Symptoms and Early Intervention:

Recognizing the early symptoms of osteoarthritis is crucial for prompt intervention and better outcomes. Early signs may include mild joint pain, stiffness after periods of inactivity, and occasional swelling. If these symptoms are left untreated, they may progress, leading to more severe pain, increased joint stiffness, and reduced joint function. Seeking medical attention and diagnosis at the onset of symptoms is essential to initiate appropriate treatment.


Effective Treatments for OA:

Although articular cartilage cannot repair itself, several treatment options exist for OA. 

  1. Reduce Your Risk Factors: Reducing risk factors is fundamental, including weight loss, activity modification, and strengthening the muscles around the affected joint.
  2. Pharmacological Management: Pharmacological management involves using anti-inflammatory medications, cortisone injections, and viscosupplementation injections.
  3. Physical Therapy: Physical therapy can play a crucial role in maintaining motion and strengthening muscles, which can help alleviate OA symptoms and improve joint function. Therapists can design personalized exercise programs tailored to the individual's specific needs, promoting joint stability and flexibility.
  4. Lifestyle Modifications: Preventing or delaying the progression of osteoarthritis is possible through lifestyle modifications. Engaging in regular low-impact exercises like swimming, cycling, and walking can help maintain joint health and reduce the risk of joint degeneration. Maintaining a healthy weight is also vital, as excess body weight places additional stress on weight-bearing joints, accelerating cartilage wear.
  5. Surgery: In severe cases of OA, joint replacement surgery becomes the gold standard for management. However, it is typically recommended only after conservative treatments have failed. In certain situations, arthroscopic surgical options may be suitable for addressing articular surface loss or injury, particularly in young adults with limited joint involvement.


Exploring Newer Treatments:

Recent advancements in arthritis treatment include the use of stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections. These cutting-edge therapies show promise in promoting healing and reducing inflammation, offering new hope for OA patients.


Seek Professional Help:

If you or a loved one is experiencing symptoms of OA, our skilled orthopedic surgeons can accurately diagnose the condition and recommend appropriate treatment options to reduce or eliminate the pain and discomfort caused by arthritis. Our providers are available in Nashville, TN, and Franklin, TN, to help you take the next step towards improved joint health.



Arthritis, particularly osteoarthritis, can impact anyone, but understanding its causes, symptoms, treatment options, and preventive measures empowers individuals to make informed decisions about their joint health.

With the guidance of experienced orthopedic surgeons and the implementation of appropriate treatments and preventive strategies, those suffering from arthritis can find relief, maintain joint function, and regain their mobility and quality of life.

Remember that early intervention and proactive measures are key to managing arthritis effectively and preventing its progression. Schedule an appointment today and take the first step towards a pain-free and active future.


1. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Population Health. (2014, April 4). Osteoarthritis: Risk Factors. Retrieved October 16, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/risk_factors.htm

2. Fox, A. J., Bedi, A., & Rodeo, S. A. (2009). The Basic Science of Articular Cartilage: Structure, Composition, and Function. Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach, 1(6), 461-468. doi: 10.1177/1941738109350438

Jocelyn Rollins, ANP-BC

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